- Following notes at the end of the article. Always indicate a list of literature as References.
- Do not use blank lines between the authors and their works.
- Ensure that the list is in alphabetical order and with multiple references per author, start with the most recent publication.
- Use a colon between the title and sub-title.
- All titles must be capitalized.
- With edited volumes, use a colon after In:
- Translated works should be referenced as: (translated by (full name))
- Do not mention the State with American publishers.
Trocki, Carl A.
1979 Prince of Pirates: The Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore 1784-1885. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Publication with more than one author
Abrahamsen, Rita and Michael C. Williams.
2011 Security Beyond the State: Private Security in International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pugh, Michael (ed.)
1994 Maritime Security and Peacekeeping: A Framework for United Nations Operations. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Article in journal
1989 Contemporary Piracy. Californian Western International Law Journal 21(1): 123-128.
Article in edited volume
1994 Piracy, Terrorism, and Crime at Sea. In: P.T. Haydon and A.L. Griffiths (eds.), Maritime Security and Conflict Resolution at Sea in the Post-Cold War Era. Halifax: Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, Dalhousie University. Pp. 22-39.
More than one publication by an author
1998a Low Intensity Conflict in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking and Political Terrorism. Conflict Studies 1(1): 1-36.
1998b Contemporary Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 21(2): 87-112.
1997 Gray Area Phenomena in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking and Political Terrorism. Canberra: SDSC.
1973 The Savage Mind (translated by John and Doreen Weightman). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
References and quotations in the text
- Use parenthetical author-year-page references in the text and separate references by a semicolon (Johnson 1983: 11; Ellen 1989: 238-239).
- Separate references to the same author by a comma (Acheson 1981, 1983).
- The references should appear in chronological order, starting from the oldest (Johnson1983:11; Ellen 1989: 238-239).
- Do not use & but ‘and’ when referring to co-authored work (McCay and Acheson 1989).
- If the original year of a publication differs from the edition used, indicate this as follows:Jansen (1969 ). In References: 1969 .
- If a publication has more than three authors, only mention the first followed by ‘et al.’
- When citing an author twice in a row use ‘ibid.’
- If the year of publication is unknown, use the indication n.d. (Gordon n.d.).
- Carefully check whether all references in the text are also mentioned in the list of referencesand vice versa.
Refer to websites in notes (do not italicize) as: (accessed on 3 October 2018).
References to newspaper articles and magazines should not be annotated in the References but either in the text (in parentheses, italicize the name of the newspaper or magazine, comma, date – e.g., Herald Tribune, 20 November, 2001) or in a note (idem, without parentheses).
Quotes and quotation marks
- Use single inverted commas to mark quotes and ‘as if’ words. Use double inverted commasonly for quotes and “as if” words within quotes.
- Quotes of more than three lines should be indented without inverted commas (only usesingle inverted commas for quotes and ‘as if’ words within indented quotes). Skip a line before and after an indented quote.
- When leaving out words from a quotation, indicate this with three dots …
- When substituting words or adding an explanation within a quotation, use squareparentheses . Also use square parentheses when changing lower/upper case into upper/lower case, for example, ‘[I]n some instances, ….’
- Within a quote, the full stop or comma should come after the closing inverted comma, suchas ‘Teresa told me that’. Other punctuation marks, such as quotation marks or exclamation points, will come within the quote and before the inverted comma, such as ‘Can you believe it?’
- When adding emphasis, state added emphasis, such as (Grassiani 2013: 14, emphasis added).