Authors should double-space the entire document, including an abstract, notes and references (as an e-mail attachment) in Word to:

All articles should have a maximum word count of 8,000 words. This includes all references and footnotes. Use clear document names that include your surname. State your e-mail address at the end of the text (before the Notes). © Copyright belongs to ETNOFOOR. Permission for reproduction or reprint is usually granted if requested in advance. Please carefully follow the instructions below.

Format of the article:

The submitted article should adhere to the following format:

Title (bold, initial capitals)

Subtitle (bold, initial capitals)

<skip four lines>

Author (John Johnson)

Affiliation (University of Toronto)

<skip four lines>

Etnofoor articles do not have the heading ‘introduction’. An introduction should state a clear question and preferably situate the article in an ongoing debate. To indicate a new paragraph, use a hard return and one Tab (do not skip a line and/or use spaces to indent and do not indent a paragraph under a title, heading, table or figure).

<skip two lines>


<skip one line>

Skip two lines before and one after each section heading. Use bold and lower case in section headings (example: ‘The art of writing’). Do not use numbers.

<skip one line>

Skip one line before each subsection heading (the text should follow without skipping a line). Use lower case in subsection headings (Writing it right). Do not use numbers.

Contact information

Please state your e-mail address at the end of the text, after two blank lines:



E-mail: […]@[…]



If applicable, appear after your contact information at the end of the text under the heading Acknowledgements.



List notes as endnotes after your contact information at the end of the text (or after the acknowledgements) and indicate them with the heading Notes. In the text, the note number should follow a full stop. Do not give full references in notes.


  • At the end of the article, always indicate a list of literature as References.
  • Do not use blank lines between the authors and their works.
  • Ensure that the list is in alphabetical order and with multiple references per author, start with the most recent publication.
  • Use a colon between the title and sub-title.
  • All titles must be capitalized.
  • With edited volumes, use a colon after In:
  • Translated works should be referenced as: (translated by x)
  • Do not mention the state with American publishers.


Trocki, Carl A.

1979      Prince of Pirates: The Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore

1784-1885. Singapore: Singapore University Press.


Publication with more than one author:

2011      Abrahamsen, Rita and Michael C. Williams. Security Beyond the State: Private Security in International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Edited volume:

Pugh, Michael (ed.)

1994      Maritime Security and Peacekeeping: A Framework for United Nations Operations.

Manchester: Manchester University Press.


Article in journal:

Ellen, Eric

1989      Contemporary Piracy. Californian Western International Law Journal 21(1): 123-128.


Article in edited volume:

Scott, David

1994      Piracy, Terrorism, and Crime at Sea. In: P.T. Haydon and A.L. Griffiths (eds.),

Maritime Security and Conflict Resolution at Sea in the Post-Cold War Era. Halifax: Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, Dalhousie University. Pp. 22-39.


More than one publication by an author:

Chalk, Peter

1998a    Low Intensity Conflict in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking and Political

Terrorism. Conflict Studies 1(1): 1-36.

1998b    Contemporary Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism

21(2): 87-112.

1997      Gray Area Phenomena in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking and Political

Terrorism. Canberra: sdsc.


Translated work:

Levi-Strauss, Claude

1973      The Savage Mind (translated by John and Doreen Weightman). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


References and quotations in the text:

  • Use parenthetical author-year-page references in the text and separate references by a semicolon (Johnson 1983: 11; Ellen 1989: 238-239).
  • Separate references to the same author by a comma (Acheson 1981, 1983).
  • The references should appear in chronological order, starting from the oldest (Johnson 1983:11; Ellen 1989: 238-239).
  • Do not use & but ‘and’ when referring to co-authored work (McCay and Acheson 1989).
  • If the original year of a publication differs from the edition used, indicate this as follows: Jansen (1969 [1873]). In References: 1969 [1873].
  • If a publication has more than three authors, only mention the first followed by ‘et al’.
  • When citing an author twice in a row use ‘ibid.’
  • If the year of publication is unknown, use the indication n.d. (Gordon n.d.).
  • Carefully check whether all references in the text are also mentioned in the list of references and vice versa.



  • Refer to websites in notes (do not italicize).



  • References to newspaper articles and magazines should not be annotated in the References but either in the text (in parentheses, italicize the name of the newspaper or magazine, comma, date – e.g., Herald Tribune, 20 November, 2001) or in a note (idem, without parentheses).


Quotes and quotation marks:

  • Use single inverted commas to mark quotes and ‘as if’ words. Use double inverted commas only for quotes and “as if” words within quotes.
  • Quotes of more than three lines should be indented without inverted commas (only use single inverted commas for quotes and ‘as if’ words within indented quotes). Skip a line before and after an indented quote.
  • When leaving out words from a quotation, indicate this with three dots …
  • When substituting words or adding an explanation within a quotation, use square parentheses []. Also use square parentheses when changing lower/upper case into upper/lower case, for example, ‘[I]n some instances, ….’
  • Within a quote, the full stop or comma should come after the closing inverted comma, such as ‘Teresa told me that’. Other punctuation marks, such as quotation marks or exclamation points, will come within the quote and before the inverted comma, such as ‘Can you believe it?’
  • When adding emphasis, state added emphasis, such as (Grassiani 2013: 14, emphasis added).


Additional matters:

  • Spelling: consequently use UK spelling.
  • Do not use abbreviations (for example instead of e.g.; et cetera instead of etc.; that is instead of i.e.; per cent instead of %).
  • Italicize words you want to emphasize or non-English words (raison d’être, Weltanschauung). Do not italicize names of institutions but do use initial capitals (for example: United Nations).
  • All numbers below 20 should be spelt out and all numbers above twenty should be in numbers. Examples: nineteen and 20.
  • Acronyms: in small capitals (e.g., asean instead of ASEAN).
  • Enumerations should be preceded by a colon (:) and separated by semicolons (;) or placed on new lines using numbers, bullets or dashes.
  • Illustrations are very welcome, please send them in 300 DPI to Photos, drawings or maps must be numbered and accompanied by an italicized caption in lower case (e.g., Photo 1. Pearson in front of her shop). Illustrations should be of a high quality and submitted camera ready or as .jpg or .tif files. Clearly indicate in the text where illustrations should appear.
  • Tables and graphs should be numbered and have italicized captions in lower case (for example: Table 1. Estimated growth of Xu Wei’s population). Clearly indicate in the text where tables and graphs should appear.
  • Dashes: indicate dashes as: space-dash-space [−].
  • The quality of the English is the author’s responsibility. The ETNOFOOR editors reserve the right to refuse an article if the quality of writing is too poor.


Last updated, May 2016.